Launch Vehicles Of India are :
- Sounding Rockets
- Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) & Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ASLV
- Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
- Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
- Reusable Launch Vehicles
Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) & Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ASLV
Satellite Launch Vehicle was 4 stage vehicles, all of them were based on solid fuels. One of the reason behind SLV was to acquire technology for intermediate range ballistic missiles. Satellite Launch Vehicle had 5 stages and all of them were based on solid.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
- It has 4 stages and 6 boosters , Payload capacity is 1600 kg.
- Core alone – it has 4 stages but no booster with payload capacity of 1100 kg.
- PSLV XL – 4 stages with 6 boosters and payload capacity 1800 kg.
- PSLV HP – 4 stages , 6 boosters with payload of 2000 kg.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle has 3 stages , 4 boosters – stages are solid , liquid and cryogenic and the boosters are based on liquid fuels it has 3 variants –
- GSLV MK1 : based on Russian cryogenic engine with payload capacity of 2.5C tonne.
- GSLV MK2 : 3 stages, cryogenic engine is CE 7.5 & C12 i.e. cryogenic engine will have 75 kilo thrust and it will use 12 tonnes of propellant . Its payload capacity is 2.5 tonne.
- GSLV MK3 (LVM 3) : The configuration is similar to that of GSLV MK2 but cryogenic engine is more powerful. In lower orbit payload capacity will be 10 tonnes, whereas in geostationary orbit it will be around 4 tonnes. It was recently used for placing Chandrayaan 2 in orbit, The cryogenic engine is CE20 & CU25 . It means the thrust is 200kg Newton and quantity of propellant is 25 tonnes. GSLV MK3 will be employed for Gaganyaan Mission as well.
Reusable Launch Vehicles
It is also know as Two-Stage Orbit:
1st Stage is semi-cryogenic where liquid hydrogen has been replaced by kerosene which is named as Isrosene. It will take off, will reach a certain height and then will return like an airplane.
The 2nd Stage will be cryogenic, it will place the satellite in orbit, then it will de-orbit itself and finally it will have a soft landing with the help of a balloon.
These two stages will be then put together to be launched again, to develop RLV.
ISRO has planned four experiment:
- HEX : Hypersonic Flight Experiment.
- LEX : Landing Flight Experiment.
- REX : Reusable flight Experiment.
- SPEX : Scramjet Propulsion Flight Experiment.
In May 2016, the prototype of RLV was successfully tested. In that experiment , the RLV prototype was placed on a two stage – solid fuel using sounding rocket ROHINI at a height of 7 km the prototype separated and returned like an airplane.
In Aug 2016 ISRO tested scramjet engine when two scramjets were placed on a sounding rocket and they were switched on for five seconds to achieve a speed of 6 Mach , with that ISRO became 4th space
agency to successfully test scramjet technology. According to ISRO, it will be able to develop
RLV by 2030.
RLV offers the following significances-
- The Payload capacity will be up to 20 tonnes.
- The launch cost of satellites will come down by as much as 90%. This will help ISRO in offering competitive packages for the commercial launch of Satellite.
- It will help in addressing the Debris problem.
- The re-entry technology will be the most vital when it comes to Human Space flight.
- The Scramjet technology will be a part of BRAHMOS MK II missile.
- RLV will also provide technical contributions for the development of AVTAR.
AVTAR is India’s hyper plane i.e. a combination of a rocket and a jet. It is a joint venture of ISRO and DRDO, according to DRDO it will be able to complete 100 flights of outer space. It will take off like a rocket, achieve a speed of 5-8 Mach after placing the satellite, it will glide back like an airplane.
(SSLV) is a derivative of PSLV which can carry a payload of 5oo kg in lower orbit i.e. up to 2000 km.
Which is the first launch vehicles of India?
SLV Satellite was India’s first satellite launch vehicle, SLV was 4 stage vehicles, all of them were based on solid fuels.
Who was the director of Indias first launch vehicle project?
A.P.J Abdul Kalam was the director of India’s first launch vehicle project.
Which is the 3rd generation launch vehicle of India?
(PSLV) is the 3rd generation launch vehicle of India and it has the world record of launching the highest number of satellite in single flight (104)
Which is the world’s first launch vehicle?
The Sputnik 1 Spacecraft was the world’s first launch vehicle.