Paris Agreement 2015 Upsc on Climate Change and its Target

Paris Agreement 2015
Paris Agreement Countries
Paris Agreement Countries

It came in action from 3rd November 2016 with a three year lock in period which means no country can withdraw for at least 3 years from the date of enforcement that is why US applied for the withdrawal on 3rd of November 2019 but still US is a member because the negotiation process for the withdrawal take at least one year.

The Paris Agreement Goals

It is a mutual agreement as a climate change solution and prevention act. It has been put into motion to help with both mitigation and different prevention acts.

The Paris Agreement goals are : 

  1. The main goal is to increase the effectiveness of the international response to the risk caused by climate change by limiting the rise in global temperature, to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels in this century and to pursue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  2. To reduce global warming to 1.5°C or less.
  3. Together the 193 Parties of the Paris agreement would cause a major increase in global greenhouse gas emissions of about 11% from 2010 levels by 2030.
  4. By 2030, emissions must be cut by 45%, and by 2050, they must be net zero.
  5. The goal is to make financial flows consistent with a low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient, climate change prevention route, and to strengthen countries’ capacity to deal with the effects of it.
  6. The Sustainable Development Goals must also be achieved in order for the Agreement to be executed.

Paris Agreement Mitigation

The overall goal indicated in article 2 of the Paris Agreement acts on balancing the temperature increase by 2 degree Celsius and then bringing it down to 1.5 degree Celsius which is achieved in large part through mitigation.

Earlier it was thought that 1.5 degree Celsius target net emissions of greenhouse gasses should be zero by 2017 but the special 1.5 degree Celsius report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has come with the suggestion that net emissions should be zero by 2050 followed by negative emissions.

India and other developing countries have been asking for the restructuring of the ecological space i.e. the industrialized nations should reduce their emissions in favor of developing nations and least developed countries.

If the present trend of co2 emissions continues, the carbon budget for 2 degree Celsius will be exhausted by 2030 and after that whatever emission is being made will take the temperature beyond 2 degree Celsius.

Adaptations :

Governments are only one factor in successful adaptation; other factors include the active and ongoing participation of stakeholders, such as primary levels, national, regional and international organizations, the public and private sectors, civil society, and other relevant actors, as well as efficient knowledge management. According to parties to the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, Adaptation is a global challenge with local, subnational, national, regional, and international components.

It is complicated and requires micro modeling. The complex aspects of adaptation are:

  • Water safety – According to UNFCCC Water and freshwater ecosystems can be managed wisely to provide a variety of effective solutions to reduce co2 emissions.
  • For instance, the usage, distribution, storage, and treatment of water and wastewater together account for 10% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Water management and the preservation of freshwater ecosystems are crucial components of global climate change mitigation activities and strategies because wetlands contain the largest carbon stocks among terrestrial ecosystems and are yet to experience a loss rate that is 3 times higher than that of forests.
  • Climate change resilient agriculture – It is a key idea in managing atmosphere risks. Resilience in this context refers to a system’s capacity to foresee, prepare for, adapt to, absorb, and recover from the effects of it and extreme weather.
  • Food security i.e. weather smart agriculture.
  • GM Rice
  • Soil health card.

Health Risk Resilience

It affects human health in 3 ways: Directly in the form of heat wave, cold wave , drought, floods, and cyclones. Indirectly in the form of water borne diseases, vector borne diseases.
Example – psychological disorders like depression, anxiety , Post-traumatic stress disorder etc.

UNFCC has suggested 3 pathways for dealing with health issue arising from :

  1. Incremental i.e. to increase the presence of health infrastructure for example Mohalla clinics, primary health centers, health and wellness centers.
  2. Transition – it is based on the approach that unrepresented challenges require unprecedented response. It means to think out of the box. For example using Geographic Information System to prevent the breeding of the mosquitoes, using better forecasting for temperature and humidity for preventing the spread of dengue, chikungunya, malaria.
  3. Transformational – It is quite radical which emphasizes on dismantling the existing health approaches and building a new one.

Urban Risk Resilience

Efforts to increase urban resilience to climate change, includes both adaptation and ion techniques.

In order to contribute to long-term urban sustainability, it must be incorporated into larger development programmes and plans. Oftentimes, it is possible to improve weather resilience for little or no money by modifying current policies intended to address other urban environmental issues, like housing in risk-prone locations.

It is to have cities which can withstand challenges posed by climate change. There have been some initiatives like C 40 where the representatives of 40 cities work on strategies for dealing with it.

Disaster Risk Resilience

Treating climate change and disasters like floods, cyclones, drought in an integrated manner and disasters were treated separately for a long time  but now convergence is being seen.

Disaster Risk resilience focuses on institutional linking, educational and technical components. Crucially, the UNFCCC’s definition of climate change has a tendency to focus on long-term climatic changes rather than the extremes and shocks connected to contemporary climate variability. Politically, it has become difficult to incorporate large material because of this.

Considering that disaster risk resilience is thought to be mainly interested in short-term climatic variability rather than more gradual long-term changes, there has been debate over linking adaptation to disaster risk resilience under the UNFCC.

However, interest in risk management has significantly increased in recent years as more hydro-meteorological disasters have occurred and governments have begun to recognise the significance of integrating adaptation and disaster risk resilience. .

The Nairobi Work Programme, an international framework to promote countries’ awareness of the vulnerabilities and effects, and other implementation mechanisms, such as the funding listed below, reflect this.


We can conclude from this article that Paris agreement has laid a great emphasis. With its goals to limit the rise in global temperature to below 2 degrees Celsius and to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius, government has taken various adaptations such as Water Management, Climate change resilient agriculture, food security, etc. along with that many steps are taken for risk resilience in Health, Urban and Disaster such as increasing health infrastructure, initiatives like C 40 and Nairobi Work Programme.


What does the Paris Agreement do?

The Paris agreement lays out a global strategy to prevent dangerous effects of climate change. Additionally, it seeks to assist governments in their endeavors and strengthen their capacity to combat its change’s effects.

What are the 3 goals of the Paris Agreement?

The Paris Agreement’s main goal is to increase the effectiveness of the international response to the threat posed by climate change, To limit global warming to 1.5°C or less, By 2030, emissions must be cut by 45%, and by 2050, they must be net zero.

What are the five main points of Paris Agreement?

  • Stabilizing the temperature increase by 2 degree Celsius.
  • By 2030, emissions will be down roughly 11% from 2010 levels.
  • Emissions must be reduced by 45% by 2030.
  • They must achieve net zero by 2050.
  • Making financial flows congruent with reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Scroll to Top