Inertial Navigation System Works, Types And Its Uses?

Inertial Navigation System Control
Inertial Navigation System Control

Earlier the this system were dedicated for military purposes but now they also have civil purposes like search and rescue operation, telecommunication, meteorological purpose, travelling etc.

The Navigation System Of World Are

  • GPS of the USA
  • GLONASS of Russia
  • GALILEO of Europe
  • Beidou navigation satellite system of the China.
  • IRNSS or NAVIC of the India.

Inertial Navigation System

Inertial Navigation System is independent of external sources like ground transmitter antenna and it is completely inside the aircraft, which calculate the speed, position and distance of the aircraft.

Before take off pilot enter starting location data in the inertial navigation system after that whole system works on autopilot system, this system is used in large aircrafts and location is updated through calculation based on the force experienced by the Inertial Navigation System accelerometer.

Types Of Inertial Navigation System

There are different types Of Inertial Navigation System :

  • Gyro Based INS : Mechanical and Ring Laser Gyroscopes.
  • Accelerometer Based INS : Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Systems.
  • Based on Applications : Like Aerospace, Marine and Land Vehicle etc.

Inertial Navigation System Working Principle

INS working is based on the principles of Newtonian mechanics depend on accelerometers and gyroscopes for tracking velocity and orientation.

Accelerometers In Inertial Navigation System

Gyroscopes In Inertial Navigation System

Gyroscopes are devices used to calculate or maintain orientation and angular velocity. It works on the principle of angular momentum.

ring laser gyro based inertial navigation system

Ring laser gyro based inertial navigation system uses ring laser gyroscopes as its primary sensors to determine an object’s or vehicle orientation and changes in position. It operates on the principles of the Sagnac effect.

Uses Of inertial Navigation System

  • Used in autonomous underwater vehicles.
  • INS is used in tanks, armoured vehicles, and other military equipment’s.
  • Disaster management
  • This system also helps in Space Diplomacy, telecommunication, search & rescue.
  • INS also Used in robotic systems.
  • Help in determining the position and orientation of spacecraft.

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) was announced in 2006 as Indian navigation system, launch started in 2013, which was completed in April 2016. IRNSS has seven satellites out of which 3 are in geostationary earth orbit, and 4 in highly elliptical geosynchronous orbit in two pairs and each pair forming a figure of 8. Besides these 7 satellites, 2 are in standby mode. IRNSS is the only system in the world using L-band & S-band.

Pm of India Narendra Modi witnessing the launch of irnss
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi witnessing the successful launch of IRNSS-1G, in New Delhi on April 28, 2016.
  1. Restricted one for military purpose.
  2. Civilian purposes.

Over the Indian landmass accuracy will be 10 meter whereas in adjoining areas up to 1500 km. It will be 20 meters. In future accuracy can be increased to up to 5 meters.

How Does Inertial Navigation System Work


What are the three 3 main types of navigation?

  • Main System.
  • Local System.
  • Contextual System.

What is navigation used for?

  • Border management
  • Disaster management
  • Space Diplomacy

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